DIRECT SPEECH WITHIN TEACHER TALK DURING TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITY IN THE CLASSROOM

By: Nona Ayu Solihah, S.Pd

Teaching is an activity in which the teacher delivers knowledge and provides facilities to reach the goal of education. Teaching and learning activity in the classroom cannot be separated from teacher and student’s interaction. Teachers as a guide, facilitator, or monitor should be qualified for teaching. As Javanese idiom said that “Guru iku digugu lan ditiru” which has a meaning as “teacher should be followed and obedient”. This means that whoever can teach but not all of them can be teachers. Hence, being a teacher should have qualities in many aspects. The qualities of the teachers are divided into three, they are pedagogical knowledge (PK), content knowledge (CK), and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK).

In the classroom, the interaction between students and teachers are happened everyday. The interaction from the teachers can be like asking conditions, questions, understanding. It can be also instructing to give more pay attention to the teachers, to do the task, and others. By communication in the classroom between students and teachers, it will help the teachers deeply know the students’ personality or their ability. Teachers’ utterance in the classroom when giving command or comment is powerful for the students’ psychology and acquisition. It is why the teacher should be careful of the language choice used to interact with the students. These communication can be also called as teachers’ talk.

Talking about teachers’ talk which is a teacher’s communication in delivering the lesson, is related to a speech act that the teachers used in the classroom. Speech acts can be defined as the meaning of the utterance produced by people whether in oral or written form. According to Wijana (2009), Speech acts have four types. They are direct, indirect, literal, and non-literal speech acts. Direct speech act is also divided into Request, command, forbidden, and suggestion. The first type of direct speech is request, it is an utterance in which the function is asking something from the hearer. Request utterance can be in the form of an interrogative, declarative sentence, and modal auxiliaries. The second direct speech is a command, it is utterances that ask people to do something. The third direct speech act is forbidden which means forbid people to do something. The fourth direct speech act is a suggestion which means giving a solution in some cases.

Being a professional teacher, ethical knowledge is the fundamental key of teachers’ professionalism. As Scoheopner (2005) stated that Ethical Teacher outlines the profession and applied ethics that are an integral part of the teaching profession. Ethical knowledge can be seen from the tone of a teacher’s voice, the terms of politeness and respect that are used, and the conveyed understanding that humour and sarcasm are not necessarily interchangeable. Hence, having ethical knowledge and good communication skill is important to the teachers in conducting their teaching learning process in classroom.

In this case, the teacher produced three types of direct speech; imperative, interogative and suggestion. Among those types, the most frequently used by the teacher is imperative. However, negative imperative dominated the teacher’s speech rather than the positive one. Correlated with ethical knowledge of the teacher, it is known that the teacher is lack of ethical knowledge. Most of utterances are indicated impolite expression. The teacher tends to use intimidating expression in giving command. Moreover, the teacher is impolite on asking questions. The ethical knowledge should be built in teacher’s competence.

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